Posts Tagged ‘diagnosing’
How Urinalysis Helps In Diagnosing Renal Diseases
A question arises in mind with an exclamation mark, can a simple test like Urinalysis or UA is really capable of telling us about renal diseases or what is wrong happening in our body!
The answer is yes. It is a simple yet quite informative test especially in assessing renal functions and additionally it may give us some more information.
But what is Urinalysis? UA is actually in very simple terms the Analysis Of Urine.
Now we would be discussing UA step by step so that we may know how does this test helps us in gaining some important information about our renal functions:
1-Color of Urine
Normal: Ranges from colorless to deep yellow depending on the concentration of the urochrome pigment.
Red: Indicates hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria or hematuria (blood in urine)
Orange: This color happens if a person is taking rifampicin(This drug is taken by patients who are suffering from Tuberculosis or TB)
Yellow: Indicates concentrated urine which usually occurs in dehydration, jaundice, and with the use of sulfasalazine and Vitamin B Complex)
Green: Methylene Blue (This is a blue dye and is found as a component in several medicines)
Black: Happens in severe hemoglobinuria and in case of use of methyldopa.
Brown: Indicates bilirubin and also happens with use of phenothiazines.
2-Volume of Urine
Normal volume of urine is 800-2500 ml/day. In case of Oliguria, urine volume is less than 300 ml/day. And in Anuria, urine volume is less than 100 ml/day. It is very important to note that complete anuria suggests either an acute vascular event or total urinary obstruction; even in the most severe intrinsic renal disorders some urine is usually still produced. Polyuria, which refers to the production of an excess volume of urine, may have a number of causes like:
-Excess fluid intake
-Osmotic, e.g. hyperglycemia
-Cranial diabetes insipidus (loss of antidiuretic hormone-ADH)
-Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) (tubular dysfunction)
*Genetic tubular cell defects: ADH receptor, aquarian mutations
*Drugs/Toxins: lithium, diuretics, hypercalcemia, Interstitial renal disease
3-Specific Gravity of Urine
It varies with the quantity of urine. Its normal range is 1.002 to 1.025. Estimation is required in investigation of polyuria or SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Hypersecretion). Persistently low specific
Diabetes mellitus diagnosing test
High level of glucose in blood and later appear in urine is called as diabetes mellitus. So glucose is the most important test to a diabetic. The fasting blood glucose level test is the most common screening diagnosis test for diabetes and pre-diabetes. It is usually ordered when someone has symptoms of diabetes or for a person having high diabetes risk factors.
Random plasma glucose test
The random plasma glucose test measures plasma glucose levels at any time without fasting or no worry about what you have ate. This blood sugar test can do casually at any time, so it is called as casual plasma glucose test.
Random plasma glucose test is just used for the screening of diabetes, if there is any abnormal result then diabetes needs to be confirmed by fasting plasma glucose test or oral glucose tolerance test.
Fasting plasma glucose test
According to the American Diabetes Association, either a fasting plasma glucose (fasting for about 8 hour) or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may be used to diagnose diabetes and pre-diabetes. But normally recommends the fasting plasma glucose test because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform compared to oral glucose tolerance test.
Fasting plasma glucose test is carried out after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (should not eat or drink anything except water). If there is any abnormal test result then it is recommended to repeat this test on another day.
Oral glucose tolerance test
OGTT requires to having a fasting plasma glucose test, followed by drinking a standard amount of glucose solution to “challenge” their system, followed by another plasma glucose test 2 hours after the consumption of glucose. If there is any abnormal result, then the test should be repeated on another day to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.
Glucose challenge test
Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed using a glucose challenge test (GCT) as a screen, followed by OGTT if the screen test result is abnormal.
Diabetics must monitor their own blood glucose levels, often several times a day, to determine how far above or below their glucose level is and, based on their doctor’s recommendation. This is usually done by placing